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Hello! In this article, we will explain what advertising is. Today you will learn what functions and tasks advertising performs, what hidden advertising is. Advantages and disadvantages of advertising. Which advertising is considered unfair and unreliable.

What is advertising

Now, probably, you will not find a person who does not have the slightest idea about advertising. All due to the fact that it is present almost everywhere.

All people understand what is meant by the concept of “advertising”, but few can define this term. If we literally translate from Latin, we get “shout, inform, shout.” In fact, there are many interpretations of the word “advertising”. Here are some of them.

Advertising is a specific type of marketing activity that aims to distribute pre-paid information to attract consumers and increase sales.

Advertising is information that is conveyed to the consumer in several ways, while containing information about a specific product, service, etc. This is done to popularize products in order to draw attention to the advertised object.

Advertising is a prepaid form of information dissemination.

Advertising is one of the most effective ways to convey information that marketers have previously developed to potential customers.

Many people argue about which definition is more reliable. According to the law, advertising is information that is disseminated in order to attract customers.

But the ad industry disagrees. They believe that advertising is a specific activity. There is some truth in each option, so it would be fair to say that advertising is information produced in the course of a certain type of activity.

Purposes, tasks, and functions of advertising

The main purpose of advertising is to increase the company’s income by increasing the demand for the services provided or the goods sold.

Good advertising can maintain interest in the product from consumers for a long time, and also contributes to the promotion of the company in the market.

Many people think that advertising is useless information. In fact, it performs a number of very important functions.

Let’s list the main ones:

  • Informing consumers about the advertised product;
  • Formation of the brand image;
  • Convincing people to take any action (for example, buy a product or use a service);
  • Reminder to purchase the advertised product.¬†For example, you keep forgetting to buy a replacement light bulb, but when you enter a store, you see an advertisement for that product.¬†It is safe to say that you will think of a spare light bulb and buy it;
  • Consolidation of experience with a previously made purchase.¬†Let’s say you used one brand of soap and you liked it.¬†You ran out of soap and went to the store for a new one.¬†You can choose a different brand of detergent, but if the brand name of the first hygiene product will often catch your eye (for example, watching TV ads), then you will not want to experiment, and you will choose a proven advertised product.

Participants in the advertising process

As we said before, advertising is a certain type of activity, in the process of which many people are involved.

If a person decided to sell his own apartment, wrote an ad, posted it, and waits for buyers, then the minimum number of participants is involved in this process. We will analyze a larger-scale case, where there are more than 2 participants in the process.

An example. Upholstered furniture companies need to advertise and disseminate information about their products. The manager turns to an advertising agency for help, where, based on his wishes, they develop brochures, order banners, shoot a video to be shown on TV, etc. After that, the agency hires people who will distribute printed information and mount banners. All this is done so that, during the advertising campaign, the maximum number of people learn about the existence of the upholstered furniture manufacturer (customer) and its products.

Now let’s figure out who is who in this chain.

The advertising customer is the advertiser. An advertising agency is an advertising producer, the people hired by the agency to distribute information are advertisers, and the population targeted by the ad is the advertising recipients. An agency can be both a producer and a distributor of advertisements if it has the appropriate staff.

The consumer of advertising is a key link in the entire chain since the advertising industry works to ensure that the advertiser sees the necessary information.

Types of advertising

Depending on the method of distribution, purpose, location of ads, etc., advertising is divided into types, and they, in turn, into subspecies. We will analyze them now.

Based on the original purpose, advertising can be:

  1. Commercial or economic.¬†This is an advertisement that surrounds us everywhere.¬†That is, the information that is disseminated is conveyed to potential customers for the purpose of subsequent acquisition.¬†For example, you came across an advertisement for a medical clinic.¬†Such advertising encourages you to visit this center, use the services of specialists and subsequently pay for a doctor’s consultation.
  2. Political. A striking representative of political advertising is the election campaign of the population. In such commercials, they are not forced to buy something, but they are encouraged to take a certain action, that is, to vote for a certain candidate for deputy, party, etc.
  3. Social. Such advertising is aimed at the achievement of any important public or charitable purpose. For example, advertisements that visually inform about the dangers of cigarettes or alcoholic beverages are designed to protect citizens from addictions. And information about orphans in orphanages helps unfortunate children find a family.

Also, depending on the specificity of the goal, advertising is divided into:

  • Counter-advertising is a denial of information that was presented due to unfair advertising;
  • Anti-advertising – information that is disseminated in order to reduce the demand for a certain product or discredit it.

Depending on the method and place of placement, advertising can be of the following types:

Outdoor advertising

This advertisement is located on the street, that is, outside the enclosed space. It is designed for human visual perception (billboards, signs, posters, posters, etc.).

The main types of outdoor advertising include:

  • Roller displays;
  • Street billboards;
  • Decorative signs;
  • Video screens;
  • Live advertising;
  • Electronic scoreboards;
  • Pedestals;
  • POS materials;
  • Large-scale volumetric structures;
  • Poster stands.

It is believed that outdoor advertising is effective if it contains information that a person perceives within 1 second. Outdoor advertising posters are always bright, memorable, and the information in them is laid out concisely, concisely, and compactly.

There are many factors to consider when choosing where to place your ad. This is the cross-country ability of streets, and the speed of movement of vehicles, and the presence of a large number of buildings. For example, if you place a billboard in the city center, where there are many traffic lights and high-altitude knowledge, then the advertisement will be seen by passers-by, users of public transport and their own cars (when they stand at traffic lights), people living in nearby houses from the windows of apartments, offices, etc., etc.

Outdoor advertising has its advantages and disadvantages.

The benefits include :

  • Relatively low cost;
  • Wide coverage of the target audience;
  • The ability to pay once and receive the effect over a long period of time;
  • A wide range of options for placing information.

The disadvantages of outdoor advertising include :

  • Inability to transfer all available information;
  • Atmospheric precipitation (rain, hail, etc.) that can damage advertising content;
  • In some cases, the high¬†cost of¬†manufacturing large-scale advertising structures.

Advertising in the media (media)

This is the distribution of advertising information on television, radio, or print media. The most effective way to convey information to the media is through television advertising. This type of advertising creates the illusion of communication with each viewer.

The main format can be considered a short video that carries certain information.

The advantages of television advertising include :

  • Impact on the viewer through visual and sound effects;
  • Maximum coverage of the target audience;
  • Psychological impact on the subconscious of people;
  • A large selection of various effects induces you to perform a specific action.

The disadvantages are :

  • Quite a high cost of commercials and airtime;
  • In some cases, the negative attitude of viewers to annoying ads.

Internet advertising

Today advertising on the Internet is the most effective way to advertise goods and services. This type appeared relatively recently since the Internet itself became available not so long ago.

The main advantage of online advertising is its low cost and coverage of the maximum number of PC users.

Unlike advertisements on television, on the Internet, in order to view a commercial, you need to perform a certain action, that is, click in a certain place. For example, when we watch a movie on TV, and it is interrupted by an advertisement, then we are not asked whether we want to watch it or not. It is shown regardless of your opinion. In the case of online advertising, the user has a choice. He decides for himself whether this information is interesting to him or not. If so, he looks at it.

Online advertising can be presented in different formats. This is advertising in Yandex, Google, contextual advertising, or pop-up windows.

There are several types of online advertising:

  • Contextual advertising.¬†Information that corresponds to the content of the website on which it is located.¬†For example, you are reading a book by your favorite author online.¬†On the same resource, you are offered to buy a printed version of this book.¬†Such advertising is contextual.
  • Display advertising.¬†This is information posted on sites that are advertising platforms.¬†For example, you need¬†to sell a piece of land¬†and you place your ad on a website that specializes in the sale of real estate.
  • Viral advertising.¬†In simple terms, this is “word of mouth”, that is, the information that users themselves disseminate (in most cases, free of charge).¬†Let’s say you bought a humidifier and told your friends to buy the same product.
  • Targeted advertising¬†is the¬†delivery of¬†information to specific PC users who meet the requirements set by the advertiser.¬†This type of advertising is widely used in social media.¬†networks.¬†For example, advertisements for women’s underwear will catch the eye of women between the ages of 18 and 50.
  • Native ads¬†are unobtrusive ads that blend harmoniously with the site’s content.¬†The user may not even be aware that they are viewing ads.¬†It does not cause negative feedback from visitors to the resource.
  • Teaser advertising¬†is the dissemination of veiled information, in which some kind of intrigue is created.¬†Such advertising entices users to take an action (click in a certain place) in order to view videos, pictures, etc. in full.
  • Email¬†campaigns are the distribution of letters that contain advertising information to e-mail addresses.
  • Product placement in online games¬†is the dissemination of information and the product itself in the gameplay of the game.

Printable advertisement

This is advertising information printed on paper (flyers, brochures, catalogs, books, business cards, etc.).

Many people prefer printed information because you can pick it up, look through it, save it, etc.

For example, you buy groceries at the same supermarket. Sometimes on TV, they announce the start of promotions for some goods. But besides that, every Monday at the checkout you can take a newspaper (a catalog of promotional items for this week), which you will study at home, and make a list of upcoming purchases. In this case, the information from the video clip on TV is difficult to perceive, and the printed edition is more convenient for buyers.

Direct advertising

This is a type of advertising in which two-way communication is established between a consumer and a distributor of advertising.

Direct advertising involves both personal and non-personal contact.

For example, you may be approached with an offer on the street, made a phone call, or contacted via e-mail. In any case, the information will be addressed to you personally.

Very often you can find a negative attitude of advertisers to the disseminators of information. Nevertheless, this type of information transfer and advertising of goods is actively developing and improving.

Advertising on souvenir products

Surely every citizen of our country has a mug, spoon, keychain, calendar, or another souvenir with the name of a trademark.

This is a kind of free gift that demonstrates the friendliness of the seller to the potential customer.

Advertising in transport

This is information that is disseminated in any type of transport. Such advertisements include all kinds of advertisements in the metro, buses, trams, etc.

The main advantages of advertising in transport are:

  • Low-cost price. For example, the carrier is paid once and people view the ad for a long time;
  • High efficiency.¬†Often, passengers have nothing to do during the trip, so they study any information that is inside the vehicle;
  • Maximum views.

Legislative regulation

Advertising relations in the market of goods and services are regulated at the legislative level. The main provisions relating to the economic (commercial) and social. advertisements are spelled out in the federal law “On Advertising” ( dated 13.03.2006). Political advertising is regulated by the federal law ‚ÄúOn polit. parties ‚ÄĚand‚Äú On public associations ‚ÄĚ. If we are talking about pre-election campaigning, then the law “On elections”.

The distribution of false and unfair advertisements is not permitted by law. Any violations are subject to administrative responsibility.

Advertising of specific goods

The legislation of each country has its own categories of specific goods, advertising which must adhere to strict rules.

In some states, it is forbidden to disseminate information about alcoholic beverages and cigarettes without an appropriate inscription, which tells about the harm of addictions. Sometimes you can find such a condition that prohibits the display of advertisements for alcoholic beverages until 22.00.

This category of goods also includes drugs, advertising which is necessary to warn people that self-medication can harm their health.

Hiden advertisement

Each advertising consumer decides for himself whether he will view ads or not. For example, anyone can switch the TV channel where advertisements are shown, or they can not read advertisements in transport, but simply look out the window.

But sometimes ads are camouflaged or not labeled as such. Currently, there are many methods of influencing a person, both subconscious and non-subconscious.

If advertising acts on the subconscious of a person unconsciously for him, by virtue of the method of transmission, then it is considered hidden.

Some consider the fictional 25 frame method to be a prime example of such unfair advertising. Its meaning is as follows. Presumably, a person’s vision perceives 24 frames per second, and in some advertisements, films, programs, etc., 25 frames are inserted, which carries information of an advertising nature. It was believed that it is the 25th frame that acts on the subconscious, bypassing the human consciousness. That is, it inspires you to take some action. But in 1958, the presence of the psychological impact of 25 frames on human consciousness was refuted by scientists.

In many countries, hidden advertising is prohibited, and violation of this condition is punishable by liability. But mankind knows no cases when violators were punished.


Advertising is the transmission of information that is paid for by the customer. Advertise products in order to increase profits by increasing demand for the product. An advertising campaign is most often carried out through intermediaries (advertising agencies).

The consumer of advertising is the people who view the information provided. They can do it consciously (if they are looking for information about a product) or unconsciously (when watching a video on television that interrupted a film or broadcast).

There are a huge number of types of advertising for goods and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. People have different attitudes towards advertising information. But regardless of the opinion of society, the advertising industry develops and brings in billions of dollars in profit annually.

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